Why We Need Reform

The Reformation

In his book Start With Why, Simon Sinek argues that the single most important concept for any company, person, or movement is to know why they do what they do. This year is the 500th anniversary of the Reformation which means that the question of why the Reformation happened is in the spotlight. Martin Luther’s protest against the Roman Catholic establishment set events in motion that would forever change the face of the world. Therefore the Protestant world is devoting a lot of attention to his life and legacy this year. However, what will draw little attention is the consequential movement which developed in the shadow of the Protestant Reformation: the Anabaptists. I believe now is also the time to consider why this movement began, assess where it has gone, and continue allowing the Word of God to reform it. Although I can only scratch the surface, I want to highlight three ideas which shaped the original Anabaptist movement: biblical authority, brotherhood, and cross bearing. These men were not perfect but there is much to learn from the original architects’ attempt at true gospel reform. My intent in revisiting these ideas is to consider why the Anabaptist movement began and why we need reform today.

Biblical Authority

Martin Luther’s writings were causing a stir all across Europe. Meanwhile in Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli was leading a reform campaign of his own. A number of young men had gathered around him to study the Bible in the original languages. As the Bible was studied with fresh vigor it became apparent the Roman Catholic establishment was corrupt and promoting false doctrine; doctrine which was foreign to the apostolic church. Although the implications were many, at the heart of restoring the true gospel was the desire to restore both the living Word of God and the written Word of God, rather than the Pope and tradition, as authoritative for church life and practice.

Yet those desiring reform discovered the authority of the Word faced a major obstacle: the authority of the state. This became crystal clear on October 26-28, 1523, in a public debate concerning the Mass. Although Zwingli had previously denounced the practice as unbiblical, when the Zurich city council decided to maintain the practice, he relented and said the decision was in their hands. For many of Zwingli’s young followers this concession was unthinkable because it subjected the Word to the city council.1

One of the opponents of the Mass, Simon Stumpf, boldly declared, “Master Ulrich, you do not have the right to place the decision on this matter in the hands of my lords, for the decision has already been made, the Spirit of God decides.”1 In other words, Stumpf was saying that the Spirit of God through the clear revelation of God’s Word, had already made the decision.

Conrad Grebel, who was also at the debate and an enthusiastic supporter of Zwingli, was deeply grieved by this compromise. Consequently the group who felt betrayed by Zwingli began to move in a different direction and developed under the leadership of Grebel. His vision for gospel reform can be summarized in a letter written in 1524. “Exercise discipline according to the Word, and establish a Christian church with the help of Christ and His rule…be admonished to preach fearlessly the Word of God alone, establish divine customs alone, accept alone what may be found in clear Scripture, and reject, hate, and curse all proposals, words, customs, and opinions of all men, including your own.”1

The core idea driving this group was that the rule of Christ alone, as revealed in the Word of God alone, was absolutely authoritative for all of life. Today, cultural pressure wars against the Word and this foundational idea has been compromised in many facets of Anabaptism. I know many will think this sounds like a caricature but it’s the only way I know how to concisely portray where we presently stand. One wing of Anabaptism fell under the sway of men’s ideas in an attempt to keep the movement relevant; the other wing resorted to men’s practices in an attempt to keep the movement safe. In the process both have undermined the biblical gospel.

If gospel reform is going to take place in our movement we must make a steadfast resolution to “reject, hate, and curse all proposals, words, customs, and opinions of all men” and allow clear Scripture to govern and guide us by the power of the Holy Spirit. This is only possible if men, women, and children will hunger for the living Word and study the written Word with fresh vigor. If the Anabaptist world is going to experience gospel reform then the Word of God must be the final authority.


A second idea which developed in this movement was the need for the church to be a brotherhood. Jesus’ incarnation was the foundation for this life together. He was gathering a people from every tribe, tongue, and nation held together by His life, death, and resurrection. This idea of a community held together by the gospel was antithetical to the hierarchal system which had developed in Roman Catholicism. In that system the church was held together and disciplined by the physical sword rather than the sword of the Spirit. Yet Jesus himself warned against this kind of tyrannical leadership in Matthew 20:25, “It shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be a servant.” So a leader in God’s kingdom is called to shepherd according the Word of God, not by physical and mental coercion.

Our communities must be built on love, truth, and transparency; following the example of Christ. Too many Anabaptist communities fail in these most basic precepts of community. Change must start with the leaders, our communities need leaders who are broken, humble, and fear God. Shepherds must show the flock by example. True holiness will never flourish until gospel-motivated faith, repentance, and transparency water the hearts of our people. If the Anabaptist world is going to experience gospel reform then the church must be a loving, truthful, and transparent community.

Cross Bearing

A third idea which developed in this movement was the reality of daily cross bearing. A servant was not above his master. Therefore, if Jesus suffered to fulfill the will of the Father and enter into glory then we likewise must follow in His path. Furthermore a profession of faith which allowed one to maintain a carnal lifestyle of comfort and ease was not one of true faith. Menno Simons says of those who would follow Christ, “They must take upon themselves the heavy cross of all poverty, distress, disdain, sorrow, sadness, and must so follow the rejected, the outcast, the bleeding and the crucified Christ…My faithful brethren, this is a true and certain word.”3

This gospel of cross bearing seems alien in the church today. Many seem to identify more with a Trump-esque religion than with the Man from Nazareth. Yet cross bearing is the way the church must overcome evil. It is a Christ exalting, sacrificial life which disarms evil and reveals it for what it is. If the Anabaptist world is going to experience gospel reform then cross bearing must become a daily reality in the life of the church.

Gospel Splendor

I long to see the light of the gospel burn brightly in this generation of Anabaptists. However, this will not happen by accident or complacency. We must reconsider why this movement began. There is much work to be done to regain the vision of the original reform movement. The true gospel will ignite our hearts if we hunger and thirst for His righteousness. May we be able to say with Conrad Grebel, “For that now olden light of Truth again is shining bright in the world with Gospel splendor.”1

Timmy_Sarah Timothy Miller currently lives near Sarasota, Florida with his wife Sarah and son Malachi. He enjoys spending time with his family, hunting, woodworking, reading, sports, and traveling. Timothy is passionate about the Bible, truth, and understanding history. His greatest desire is to more intimately know Christ.

Works Cited:

  1. Bender, Harold S. Conrad Grebel, c. 1498-1526 The Founder Of The Swiss Brethren. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1998.
  2. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. Crossway , 2001.
  3. Simons, Menno. The Complete Writings Of Menno Simons c. 1496-1561. Edited by J. C. Wenger. Translated by Leonard Verduin, Herald Press, 1984

12 thoughts on “Why We Need Reform

  1. Just wondering what you mean by “transparency” and what Biblical terms and/or passages you would be thinking of in laying that out as one of your ‘basic precepts’ of brotherhood?


    1. Hello Tim,

      First of all what a great name 😉 Thanks for reading and for raising an excellent question. When I was writing I wondered whether that was the best term since it isn’t explicitly Biblical. However, I do believe it is implicitly Biblical and will do my best to explain why.

      By transparency I mean two things: (1) a community which is marked by clear, straightforward teaching (2) a community which is genuinely open for observation because the light of Jesus inhabits that community. I see this in Jesus life and ministry. In John 18:19-20 it says this, “The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. Jesus answered him, ‘I have spoken openly to the world. I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where all Jews come together. I have said nothing in secret.” Furthermore the Sermon on the Mount gives us a great example of what Jesus desires from His people, “You are the light of the world…let your light shine before others.”

      Therefore that is the kind of community the Apostles worked for. I see this kind of teaching and lifestyle exemplified in Paul’s testimony in Acts 20. “You yourselves know how I lived among you…serving the Lord with all humility…I did not shrink from declaring to you anything that was profitable, and in teaching you in public and from house to house…I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole counsel of God…for three years I did not cease night or day to admonish everyone with tears…In all things I have shown you that by working hard…” Also, for me Ephesians 5 sums up what children of light should be like.

      So I used that word because I believe there are Anabaptist communities which obscure Jesus by mixing Biblical truth with secular agendas. I also believe there are Anabaptist communities which obscure Jesus by erecting closed communities which are anything but transparent.

      Hopefully that brought some clarity to your question. I would love to hear your thoughts.


  2. “Jesus cannot be understood fully unless he is understood through first-century Jewish eyes and heard through first-century Jewish ears. the parables are products of first-century Jewish culture, not ours…”

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hello Joe,

      Thanks for reading! I am a little confused by your comment. Are you implying that I misrepresented Jesus by reading Him through my “Western” eyes? I understand I am very capable of doing that. I would love to hear where you think I may have done that.



    1. Hello,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I would start by saying I am not trying to wade into gender roles in the church by the use of the term “brotherhood.” I am attempting to use it in a gender-neutral way. In this application, I would define “brotherhood” as a community of people held together by a common person (Jesus Christ). This is done to emphasize the familial nature of the church. Paul instructs Timothy to use this model in 1 Timothy 5:1-2 when he says, “Do not rebuke an older man but encourage him as you would a father, younger men as brothers, older women as mothers, younger women as sisters, in all purity.” We need churches that are more like families and less like corporations.

      Now I do understand that in the church it is very possible for sister’s to be relegated to an inferior status. This is wrong and contrary to the New Testament understanding of women being fellow heirs in the grace of life. The church must have the gift’s that our sister’s bring and they are invaluable to the life of the church and the advance of the Gospel. The church must make sure that there are ample opportunities for women to serve in the church.

      However, since I am not sure where your coming from I also do want to make clear my theological commitments. I do understand the Bible to teach complementary roles for male and female in the home and church. So I do not believe reserving certain leadership roles for men to be degrading or sexist. I believe it is part of the beauty of God’s good creation.

      I would be interested to hear your thoughts.



  3. Thanks for clarifying what you meant by ‘transparency’. I applied a somewhat different definition to the word as so misunderstood your point a bit. I can agree with you on the point you were making. How about a fourth one? something along the lines of yieldedness/surrender/trust?


  4. I really enjoyed this article, it has given me some great food for thought in relating to issues American anabaptist are facing. In the section on cross bearing, you mentioned a carnal life style of comfort and ease, what does a carnal lifestyle look like? When have I crossed the line between uncarnal and carnal? Where does sacrifice play into this? I’m suspicious that I have been influenced to much by not only the American culture, but also the surrounding anabaptist culture. Curious to know what you all think!


    1. Hello Kent,

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I would say a carnal lifestyle is marked by fleshly/worldly desires rather than desires for Jesus. So how do we tell when were following the flesh or the Spirit? Admittedly it can be quite difficult to distinguish at times. I would say a helpful way to evaluate our own motives is to consider our value system. Do our values primarily line up with the dominant cultural values or with kingdom values? Jesus kingdom narrative is antithetical to the dominant cultural narrative. So adhering to His kingdom narrative will invariably bring suffering.

      I know it is easy identify and point fingers at the evils and excesses of American culture. However, I agree that often the Anabaptist subculture has similar evils and excesses present.



  5. I wonder how many assume that Jesus started a new religion over that he was a Torah observant Jew, who did not do away with the law, but rebuke the Pharisaical leadership that was based on tradition and adding to the law, a corruption of the Torah.
    I think too many reformers, especially the anabaptist reformers, built the foundation of their faith on the idea that Jesus started a new religion, and completely ignored the Jewishness of the Gospel.
    I think they took scriptures about loving your enemies and turning the other cheek totally out of the Jewish contacts, and tried to make Jesus say something that had an already been said. But after 500 years of reformation, just like call Stu, bad theology become so ingrained in a denomination or cult, that it is almost impossible for it to be cleaned out. The Jewish leadership of Jesus day had so corrupted the faith, that I think God was left with nothing but to scatter Israel around the Nations, until the end times. In the end times the Jewish this of the Gospel will be restored, and the Arrogant sea of the Gentiles and their reformers will be rebuked.Joe


    1. Could you specifically identify ways that the Anabaptist reformers distorted the “Jewishness of the Gospel?” Or how you believe the “Jewishness of the Gospel” could be restored?

      I am very appreciative of the Jewish roots of the Christian faith and would be interested to know how you believe I am misrepresenting Christianity. There is a lot of historical evidence that the early church understood Jesus command to “love your enemies” very much like the Anabaptist reformers interpreted this command. These early Christians would have understood the “Jewishness of the Gospel.”



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